The adult gall midge is a minute, very delicate fly, unlikely to be spotted by the casual observer. Gall midges are classified in the family Cecidomyiidae, an extremely diverse group of which not all members cause galls as larvae (some feed on plants without causing galls, others feed on fungi, a few are even predators or parasitoids). Cecidomyiids are divided between a number of subfamilies and tribes, with Oligotrophus belonging to the tribe Oligotrophini. In the past, this tribe has been used to cover a heterogeneous mix of relatively unspecialised cecidomyiids, but the most recent classification of the tribe strips it down to two genera, Oligotrophus and Walshomyia, found in the Holarctic region (Harris et al. 2006). Adults of these genera have legs with simple tarsal claws and long empodia (the soft pads between the claws), and as larvae they all live in galls on trees of the cypress family Cupressaceae. The exact form of the gall produced may differ between species, and it is often (though not always) possible to determine the species responsible for a gall by its form. For instance, three species that cause galls on Juniperus communis in Europe are Oligotrophus juniperinus, O. panteli and O. gemmarum. The first two species have galls formed from whorls of leaves pressed into a vase shape, but whereas in galls of O. juniperinus the leaves splay outwards towards the tip, in galls of O. panteli they remain parallel. The third species, O. gemmarum, has much smaller galls formed from only slightly modified buds; though very different from mature galls of the other two species, they may be confused with young undeveloped galls (Harris et al. 2006).
Despite their diversity, and the fact that some species are economically significant to humans, cecidomyiids are not a widely studied group. Part of the reason for this is that their small size and build makes them difficult to handle; diagnostic work on adults often requires slide-mounting them. I have made one not-very-successful attempt at slide-mounting cecidomyiids, and I can confirm that it is a fiddly process. Because the different body parts often have to be examined from different angles, slide-mounting first requires dissection of the animal into sections (so, for instance, the head can be placed on the slide face-on, the body side-on, and the terminalia top-up). In my experience, instructions for slide-mounting animals requiring such dissections will always tell you to arrange the various bits appropriately on the cover-slip before placing the slide (or the other way around, if you prefer). And if you know how to attach slide to cover-slip without having all your carefully arranged body parts immediately zooming off to a completely different spot on the slide from where you put them, then you're a far more skillful slide preparer than I am.
Harris, K. M., S. Sato, N. Uechi & J. Yukawa. 2006. Redefinition of Oligotrophus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) based on morphological and molecular attributes of species from galls on Juniperus (Cupressaceae) in Britain and Japan. Entomological Science 9: 411–421.
Simova-Tošić, D., D. Graora, R. Spasić & D. Smiljanić. 2010. Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new species in the fauna of Europe. Arch. Biol. Sci. 62 (4): 1219–1221.